Some types of cancer, such as the glioblastoma –the brain cancer more frequent and aggressive - have the ability to ‘trick’ the immune system and thus grow without being located. In any, way, unknown until now, the cancer is able to induce a tolerance in order to continue developing. But thanks to the work of the Institute of Neuroscience UMH-CSIC, Alicante and IMIB-Arrixaca of Murcia this ‘license to kill’ may have finished.
in a paper published In the journal "PNAS" explains how this tumor get invade healthy tissue without hardly resistance . The key is a process called autophagy -a natural mechanism of regeneration, or ‘cleaning ’ that occurs in our body at the cellular level - which earned its discoverer, the japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi , the Nobel prize for Medicine in 2016. The finding of the Spanish team may have discovered an Achilles heel that achieve to slow down the progression of this brain cancer.glioblastoma “hijacks” the cells defenders that surround the blood vessels of the brain, called pericytes, to turn off their antitumor action and forcing them to work in the expansion of the tumor.
Directed by Salvador Martinez , director of the Institute of Neuroscience UMH-CSIC, and Rut Valdor, the IMIB-Arrixaca, the research demonstrates how the glioblastoma kidnaps contractile cells that surround the blood vessels of the brain and they also form part of the barrier that protects it. The goal, points, it is off the function, antitumor that possess these cells, called pericytes, and forcing them to work in the expansion of the tumor.
This change in the function of pericytes, which become cells defenders to become an “enemy” succeeds glioblastoma altering one of the processes of autophagy: autophagy is mediated by chaperones. Through this mechanism, the cell breaks down and destroys damaged proteins or abnormal. And the escort are proteins that are actively working in this task. The alteration by the glioblastoma of this mechanism modifies the defense function of proinflammatory pericytes by another immunosuppressive, which favors the survival of the tumor.
There are several forms of autophagy, says ABC Health Salvador Martinez. "What we have seen as relevant to the survival of the cells of the glioblastoma - mediated autophagy chaperone (AMC)". Their role, he adds, is great. "The cancer cells, in general, have augmented the AMC, possibly, due to its carcinogenic properties; however, it is not known their role in other cells that are important for tumor growth infiltrating the healthy tissue and not be destroyed by the immune system".
Now, explains, "we've discovered that the pericytes play a key role in generating immune tolerance".
In a mouse model have demonstrated that the blockage of this autophagic anomalous, it hinders the development of the tumor. What is the cause? The cause of the adhesion-defective glioblastoma the pericito and, with it, the death of cancer cells, it becomes a target promising therapeutic.In a mouse model have been successful in reversing this process and to prevent the development of the tumor, opening the door to new therapeutic avenues to treat this aggressive disease.
"This work reveals an ability previously unknown, the glioblastoma to modulate autophagy is mediated by chaperones in the pericytes, and thus promote tumor progression. Our results point to the AMC as a therapeutic target shows promise for treating this aggressive brain cancer, until now no cure," says dr. Martinez.
previous Work from the group showed that the influence of glioblastoma on the pericito prevents the T-lymphocytes destructive can attack the tumor. "That's why the brain is not detected by the gbm and can not react against him," says Salvador Martínez.Updated Date: 23 September 2019, 23:01