Now, scientists have gone right to the heart of what's really going on inside the clouds, when in the 1940s in the laboratory are used in full-scale. The scientists Vincent Schaefer and Bernard Vonnegut (brother of author Kurt Vonnegut) was started in the 1940s, playing with them, as they are created in the lungs in a horizontal freezer cooled with dry ice.
Despite the fact that the temperature was well below freezing freezing of the cloud droplets not ice crystals; and they were supercooled. The researchers discovered that they could cause a frysreaktion through the dust clouds, with the ground dry ice. It's worked out beyond our expectations.
After a while, the scientists saw how the small clouds began to drop from the snow that is tossed down the frysboxens the bottom. The snowfall was also a trigger in a different manner, for example, it is relatively easily accessible to the chemical silverjodid.
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the Discovery was received with cheers. Finally, there is a scientifically based way to control the weather. Instead, the hopes, the prayers, and raindance could it be that the modern day man is to send up the aircraft, loaded with silverjodid to the appropriate cloud service.
the Method's name, molnsådd, quickly gained wide distribution, and is used in all sorts of contexts. For example, the american meteorologists have suggested that the military ought to be able to produce rainfall at various places in the Soviet union, to destroy the roads, and cause a crop failure. As an additional bonus, should the Soviets not to retaliate with the same means, since most weather systems move from west to east.
today, The use of the method, according to the world meteorological organization, periodically, in more than 50 countries, such as Australia, India, Brazil, and Spain. Of any such activities.
Uncertain of the effect of the
However, this method is more efficient than a raindance? The critical scholars began quite early to point out that it is one thing to do with the cloud in a controlled manner, in a freezer, and quite another to repeat the same thing on a large scale up there in the sky.
with a Certain leading molnsådden, often to the rain, but it is far from always the case. And when it did, how could they be sure that it wouldn't have started to snow, or rain, in any case? The attempts at a systematic study that was conducted did not have any clear-cut results.
"It's really strange that the molnsådd has been used for so long, but someone had an eye on this one," says Katja Friedrich.
She is a professor in the atmosfärsvetenskap at the University of Colorado and have spent a great deal of effort is devoted to evaluating the huge efforts of the molnsådd each year in the Rocky mountains. Here, the focus is on trying to increase the amount of snow that falls during the winter, because it is an important tourist destination in the face of the dry, summer months.
" Then it will melt the snow and it flows down to the colorado river and other major rivers to the areas further to the west. If it doesn't fall enough, the snow will be sommartorkan fiercely. In the western part of the US, almost no rainfall at all during the summer, we are totally dependent on winter snowfall", says Katja Friedrich. - Sensitive radar
Molnsådden of the Rocky mountains, occurs on the so-called " orografiska of the cloud, which is still above the bergskammarna on the basis of air are pushed up and ends up in the cooler layer, so that the water vapor will condense. They are relatively quiet to fly in, around, and studying.
Katja Friedrich and her colleagues are the first research group in the world to have used a sensitive radar in order to investigate what exactly is going on in the clouds, as the aircraft are spread out silverjodiden.
" We can clearly see that the formation of ice crystals inside the clouds, right where the airplane was, and is, how the crystals grow and fall out as snow. It was the first time anyone has managed to prove it. So now we can say with certainty that this method works in all cases, if the conditions are right. However, the amount of water that is produced is not a completely awe-inspiring, " says Katja Friedrich.a Tenth of a millimeter
the Newly-published research group in a follow-up study in the scientific journal Pnas, where they measured the amount of rainfall in the area for molnsådden.
in Each run yielded between 120 000 and 340 000 cubic metres of water. It's the equivalent of a snow cover, at the one-tenth of a millimetre", says Katja Friedrich.
With the help of the vädermodelleringar, the researchers estimated that the molnsådd can increase the amount of precipitation during the winter season in the Rocky mountains, with less than 10 per cent.
" It is a lot less than many have hoped for, and it can only be part of a large system. The most important thing is how we deal with the water that we have here. Today, there is a great waste, " says Katja Friedrich.
the Project, with the molnsådd is far from being uncontroversial, " she says. The research group receives many threatening e-mails from people who think it's all about to change vädersystemen, and that silverjodiden can be dangerous if it is carried in large quantities.
Not here, there is no clear-cut studies. When it comes to people, it seems silverjodid is not harmful to health in the amounts which is up to date. However, there are studies that suggest that aquatic life may be affected.
the Criticism that it would be risky to change the vädersystemen do think, however, the Violence He is too much.
" yes, it is a kind of manipulation, but the moment you stop, so return everything back to normal. Then, there is the risk that one takes the potential of rain from each other, and start to make a fuss about it. However, it may not be to blame it on technology, but on how we are able to deal with our shared resources, " says Katja Friedrich.
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