The Trump-Biden transition is Exceptional -- but it wasn't the first to spiral to Battle

Richard Nixon's close political allies declared voting fraud and required recounts following his loss to John F. Kennedy in 1960, such as in New Jersey. Contrary to President Donald Trump, Nixon openly accepted the reduction, though he privately said he had been robbed.

The Trump-Biden transition is Exceptional -- but it wasn't the first to spiral to Battle

Richard Nixon's close political allies declared voting fraud and required recounts following his loss to John F. Kennedy in 1960, such as in New Jersey. Contrary to President Donald Trump, Nixon openly accepted the reduction, though he privately said he had been robbed.

He won four decades afterwards, encouraged by people who thought that he was their champion against Washington elites.

History specialists state the transition after the 2020 election is surely unique, occurring amid a presidential impeachment, widely-believed but debunked claims of voter fraud, and threats of violence from groups fueled by eccentric conspiracy theories. However, while tranquil presidential handoffs after even the most controversial elections are a part of American politics, they're not necessarily smooth.

The Civil War, of course, is undoubtedly the worst result of a presidential elections. But while it had been actuated by Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860, it had been the consequence of profound divisions over slavery, not over who won the election.

"You get a different sort of secession happening" this season --"that a secession of individuals into different universes of truth, the bottomless pit of conspiracy theories," said Peter Woolley, director of Fairleigh Dickinson University's School of Public and Global Affairs. "The analogy is if you refuse to accept the validity of this authorities, you are putting the nation at risk."

Some experts say the battles are very likely to continue following Joe Biden's inauguration. He is the first president to take actions with no single supported cabinet member and amid continuing hearings associated with his predecessor's impeachment. And, contrary to all evidence and heaps of court decisions, a large number of people still think he didn't win the presidency, as Trump won't concede.

That is quite a contrast to 2000, when Al Gore declared that George W. Bush won the presidency following months of legal wrangling within a recount in Florida which has been finished by the Supreme Court.

"Among the foundational principals of American democracy is in case you lose, you walk off," explained Benjamin Dworkin, manager of the Rowan University Institute for Public Policy & Citizenship.

Nevertheless, the three-month transition interval between elections and inaugurations can supply a point to reevaluate political battles, and sometimes have defined political branches that continued for decades -- or perhaps generations.

"The lengthy transition is only an chance for tragedy," explained Eric Rauchway, a professor of history at the University of California at Davis who has written concerning the Hoover-Roosevelt transition.

Following an election campaign marked by personal attacks, John Adams"bailed from town on a horse" after his 1800 reduction to Thomas Jefferson, falling to attend the inauguration of a guy he'd come to fruition, stated Woolley, the FDU professor.

Adams and Jefferson disagreed on political fundamentals -- Adams favored a strong central government while Jefferson it. However, the bitterness of the 1800 election could have originated from Jefferson fans accusing Adams of using a"dreadful hermaphroditical personality" while Adams fans called Jefferson"a mean-spirited, low-lived fellow," based on

Both guys did not talk for many years following the election. They afterwards revived their friendship, composing letters to one another till they died on precisely the exact same day, July 4, 1826.

"It was there was a profound kindred between Adams and Jefferson," Woolley said. "I really don't think we are likely to detect with Trump or anyone else."

John Quincy Adams, like his dad John Adams, didn't attend the inauguration of the man who conquered him. Much like Trump's 2016 success, Andrew Jackson's ascension to the presidency in 1828 has been regarded as an great victory by followers who thought it represented a repudiation of this elite class which controlled the nation. Thousands of people poured into the White House following the inauguration.

"There was also this rowdy exultation -- but they were not there to undermine democracy," said David Greenberg, a professor of journalism, history and media studies at Rutgers University. "They were there to observe it."

The mob caused harm but was enticed outside when bowls containing an alcoholic attack were put on the White House lawn, Greenberg said.

The inaugural party in 1829 and the bitterness of this election could be tracked to four years before -- when Congress gave the presidency to John Quincy Adams over Jackson along with other candidates. But unlike Trump, who lost the election, Jackson resulted to popular votes and at the electoral college, though he didn't have sufficient electoral votes to win.

"Jackson spent another four decades calling it a corrupt deal and endangering Adams' presidency," Woolley said.

Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House of Representatives who'd been one of the presidential candidates in 1824, created a coalition in Congress that gave the White House into Adams.

"Jackson followers believed left , outsiders looked down upon from the elite, which their frontier liberty were likely to be reined in," Wooley said, adding the 1828 success was"their revenge"

As banks were failing, Hoover thought an economic turnaround was only around the corner but was being jeopardized by Roosevelt's success, resulting in a reduction in confidence in the market, based on Rauchway, the University of California professor.

Hoover tried to have Roosevelt to register to his economic policies, such as signing off to a commission to think about forgiveness of global debt. Roosevelt refused, presuming Hoover's policies could undermine his planned New Deal, a huge public works program which helped bring the nation from the Great Depression. Meanwhile, Rauchway stated Roosevelt attempted to convince Congress to pass on New Deal laws until he took office, an attempt that Hoover short-circuited with threats of a veto.

"This was an extremely ideological effort and Roosevelt won in a landslide," Rauchway stated, adding that the American public"anticipated a dramatic shift in managing the melancholy and a long term shift to the way the national government would relate to regular Americans."

Rauchway stated the outcome was to"sort from the celebrations" as Democrats and Black people started to move into the Democratic Party.

From the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson, who believed Roosevelt a mentor, continued that routine by enrolling in law Medicare and civil rights reforms that governmental experts have stated helped direct to Democrats losing control of the South.

Richard Nixon's allies declared voting fraud in Chicago and Texas, filing lawsuits and pushing for recounts in a number of states, such as in New Jersey, a replica of Trump's claims after November's election. However there was a gap: Nixon publicly distanced himself from these efforts, even though he agreed together.

"He desired the points for openly being statesmanlike although that is not that he was," said Greenberg, the Rutgers professor.

He explained Nixon told folks at a Christmas celebration he'd been robbed and said that President Dwight Eisenhower encouraged the recount attempts. The allegations that Chicago Mayor Richard Daley helped tip the election to John F. Kennedy are still considered by a few individuals despite a lack of proof,'' Greenberg said.

However there was not a widespread movement in support of Nixon, since there was for Trump. Greenberg explained that Nixon, since he was not the president, did not possess exactly the identical sort of electricity Trump has needed to telephone the Georgia secretary of state or even fly at Michigan state legislators. Nixon also did not have exactly the exact same sort of following and did not attempt to rally the people to confirm claims of fraud.

"It did not take hold for a trigger or a rallying cry for millions of Republicans because we watched that winter," Greenberg explained.

However, Nixon's close allies attracted multiple suits, as Trump did. They led in many recounts that confirmed the election outcomes, with a single exception. Greenberg reported that Democrats asked for a recount in Hawaii that reversed the nation -- from Nixon to Kennedy.

Abbott Koloff is an investigative writer for To get unlimited use of his watchdog function that protects our democracy and communities, please register or trigger your electronic account now.

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