Hernia - Types and risk factors, diagnosis and management

Irrespective of the sex or age predilection, a hernia can occur in any individual

Hernia - Types and risk factors, diagnosis and management

Irrespective of the sex or age predilection, a hernia can occur in any individual. A brief knowledge about any medical condition can be of use to help yourself or advise others as well. This article aims to educate you about a common medical illness referred to as Hernia, but never forget to consult a doctor for medical confirmation or wise professional advice


Introduction to Hernia


In relevance to oxford, Hernia is a condition in which part of an organ is displaced and protrudes through the wall of the cavity containing it( often involving the intestine at a weak point in the abdominal wall).


A hernia is commonly observed in the abdomen, but it can afflict other risk-prone areas including belly button or umbilicus, groin, and upper thigh region. The hernia is not a fatal condition nor it is self-limiting. Some useful supplements are marketed to cure Hernia while complicated cases are advised to undergo surgery.


Different types of Hernia


The hernia can appear in variable sizes and shapes in distinctive areas of the body. According to the area of occurrence, Hernia can be classified as:


1.    Inguinal Hernia

●     As per BHC( British Hernia Centre), most common type( about 70% cases of clearly diagnosed Hernias

●     Fatty tissues of the bowel protrude into the groin at the upper thigh usually through the Inguinal canal.

●     In men, the inguinal canal lies at a region where spermatic cord passes from the stomach into the scrotum

●     In women, the inguinal canal is a band of connective tissue that keeps the uterus in position

●     Has male predilection

●     Symptoms: pain( burning/ pinching) or discomfort in the involved areas, bloating and irregular bowel movements



2.    Hiatal Hernia

●     The swollen segment of the stomach bulges through the diaphragm upwards into the chest cavity.

●     Symptoms: GERD( gastroesophageal reflux disease), pain in the chest after heavy meal intake, bloating, burping, acidity, appetite loss, weight loss, difficult swallowing, disturbed bowel movements

3.    Umbilical Hernia

●     Intestines push through the abdominal wall in close proximity to the belly button/ umbilicus

●      In infants, it is noticed when a baby cries and belly button protrudes, as a reason that the opening from where the umbilicus passes do not seal properly after birth.

●     More common and harmless in adults and present as mild discomfort or heaviness in the navel area.

4.    Incisional Hernia

●     This occurs after a surgical procedure wherein the contents of the abdomen push out through weak surgical or incisional point(the spot where the surgeon stitches the incisions).

5.    Muscle Hernia/ myofascial defects

●     Found in lower extremities

●     Localized defect in which muscles bulges out through an open cavity involving the adjacent structures

●     Symptoms: cramps, pain during exercise


Other types of Hernia

●     Epigastric Hernia

●     Spigelian Hernia

●     Diaphragmatic


Factors that increase the risk of developing Hernia?

●     Family history of hernia

●     Obesity

●     Chronic constipation

●     Smoking

●     Irritable bowel syndrome

●     Recurring diarrhea

●     Stomach infections


Diagnostic measures

●     Physical examination for inguinal and incisional hernia

●     Ultrasound/sonography or a CT scan

●     Barium X Rays

●      Endoscopy


Treatment of hernia

1.    Changes in lifestyle - weight management, avoid spicy, tomato-rich and high protein diet.

2.    Medication or Herbal supplements- Hernia and Acidim by Grocare

3.    Surgery -open/ laparoscopic surgery


Updated Date: 04 November 2019, 12:01

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