If one reads today manifesto of Communist Party, which Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote at turn of year 1847/48, two authors appear as astute forecasters of capitalist globalization, which has since been completed. Down to detail, y anticipate present, especially Marx, who contributed essential parts, even if y could not know intricate course of history and great conflicts of twentieth century. As a result, manifesto requires respect, especially its clairvoyance, which at same time is a tribute to "bourgeoisie" and its historical mission, and indeed its glorification.
In original of Marx and Engels it is literally said: "The bourgeoisie has, through its exploitation of world market, created production and consumption of all countries in a cosmopolitan fashion. It has, to great regret of reactionary, pulled national soil of industry under its feet. The ancient, national industries have been destroyed and are still being destroyed daily. They are being supplanted by new industries, [...] which are no longer indigenous raw materials, but most remote zones are processed raw materials and whose makes are consumed not only in land itself, but in all parts of world at same time. In place of old needs, satisfied by needs of country, come new ones, which claim products of furst countries and climates to ir satisfaction. In place of old local and national self-frugality and isolation comes a all-round traffic, a all-side dependence of nations from each or. And as in material, so also in spiritual production. The spiritual products of individual nations become common. National uniformity and constriction becomes more and more impossible, and from many national and local literatures re is a world literature. "
Marx was 29, Angel 26 years old when y wrote this sketch, which in retrospect must be described as ingenious. Of course, it has been more a Hegelianisch inspired fantasy from course of world history than a time diagnosis. The term "world literature", after all, had been introduced since Goe, but re was hardly any mention of a dissolution of local and national "limitations" in Europe. And most of countries of continent were mainly one in middle of 19th century: agriculturally shaped.
While capitalist industry was selective, railways helped to speed up movement of goods and people, but y were still islands in a sea of traditionality. Only in United Kingdom did it look different: in Manchester, centres of cotton industry had formed, at Birmingham and Sheffield Iron and steel processing had been created, and London developed into a modern commercial, financial and consumer Centre.
Friedrich Engels knew new industry from his own viewpoint; His book The location of working class in England of 1845 had aroused quite a stir. Karl Marx, on or hand, had no such experience. He knew about plight of rural population of Rhine and about difficult living conditions in economic crises of 1840s, but of modern factories, even world historical significance of "bourgeoisie", he had at best knowledge of second hand. They went back to his time in Paris and more still in Brussels, capital of relatively early industrializing Belgium. Marx's inspiration and information was mainly related to newspaper reading. He read of colonial grasp of Britain, economic penetration of India and "opening" of Chinese ports in Opium War in early 1840s. Fantasies about sales opportunities in Asia were also a frequent topic of coverage at time. Likewise, leaves wrote about rapid development of North America, which was borne by British capital and British exports.This text comes from magazine contemporary History No. 3/2018. You can purchase current booklet at kiosk or here.
The early textile industry in England was decisively dependent on cotton supply, which was mainly fed from south of USA. The British knew that slavery was order of day. It was also clear to m that conditions for slaves were still much tougher in sugar production in Caribbean and Brazil. These goods were traded globally; Or popular commodities such as coffee, tea, chocolate and tobacco were also included. Since flourishing of plantation economy in Caribbean and in fool around, y have been offered as inexpensive mass goods in many European cities. The up and down of ir price occupied European stock exchanges, struck down in trade, in speculation – and in economic news of newspapers.Updated Date: 22 June 2018, 12:02